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Best questions to review before final GMAT

For every positive even integer n, the function h(n) is defined to be the product of all the even integers from 2 to n, inclusive. If p is the smallest prime factor of h(100) +1, then p is?

A. Between 2 and 20
B. Between 10 and 20
C. Between 20 and 30
D. Between 30 and 40
E. Greater than 40

Now, two numbers h(100)=25050! and h(100)+1=25050!+1 are consecutive integers. Two consecutive integers are co-prime, which means that they don’t share ANY common factor but 1. For example 20 and 21 are consecutive integers, thus only common factor they share is 1.

As h(100)=25050! has all prime numbers from 1 to 50 as its factors, according to above h(100)+1=25050!+1 won’t have ANY prime factor from 1 to 50. Hence p (>1), the smallest prime factor of h(100)+1 will be more than 50.

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Just like the background in art history need by an archaeologist in order to evaluate finds of ancient art, the nautical archaeologist needs specialized knowledge of the history of ship design in order to understand shipwrecks.

A) Just like the background in art history needed by an archaeologist in order to evaluate finds of ancient art, the
B) Just as an archaeologist who needs a background in art history to evaluate finds of ancient art, a
C) Just as an archaeologist needs a background in art history to evaluate finds of ancient art, so a
D) Like the archaeologist who evaluates finds of ancient art and requires a background in art history, so the
E) As evaluating finds of ancient art requires an archaeologist who has the background in art history, so the

C has correct idiom just as… so.  “needs” is in parallel

–*–

In Rembrandt’s The Night Watch, in the second plane of the pictorial composition, to the left of but behind the two military leaders of the company, stands a little girl, illuminated by a bright shaft of light, and suspended from her dress is a dead chicken.

The original sentence is grammatically correct, and correctly employs two parallelism structures.

The first part of the underlined section to the left of but behind the two military leaders of the company contains aprepositional phrase built of the two parallel items to the left of but behind (A but B). These describe the position or location of the little girl within the pictorial composition.

The second part of the underlined section stands a little girl, illuminated by a bright shaft of light and suspended from her dress is a dead chicken contains two parallel clauses connected by and. The subject of the first clause is a little girland the matching verb is stands. The  subject of the second clause is a dead chicken and the matching verb is is suspended. The phrase illuminated by a bright shaft of light is a modifier, which is correctly placed directly after thenoun it modifies: a little girl.

–*–

A management protocol system that offers a unique method for the administration of every operational factor from rules to be obeyed by employees to the scheduling of equipment and supply purchases can be installed by any hospital that wishes to do so, free of charge. The board of directors at the Amgudnow Hospital, which is never fully occupied or excessively engaged, perceives the system as being very beneficial financially and so are planning to utilize it to its fullest. It has been proven that since the system results in a cooperative work environment with streamlined efficiency, its correct operation leads to a high level of satisfaction in workers and patients alike, reducing recovery times.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt regarding the effectiveness of the plan of the hospital’s board of directors?

Although an effective protocol can be used to completely restructure an inefficient business or organization, the success of such a project depends heavily upon the willingness of the staff to accept new ideas and try different approaches to existing problems.


Incorrect.

To solve this Conclusion Weakening question, first break down the argument. The first sentence is a premise which provides factual data. The second sentence includes the board’s plan and their conclusion that the system is beneficial. The last sentence is another premise, citing findings (It has been proven):

Premise A: a system that helps manage hospitals can be used for free
+
Premise B: the system increases efficiency and reduces recovery times
=
Board of Director’s Plan:
employ the system for its financial benefit

Possible assumption: efficiency leads to financial success in hospitals

Weakening Data ?

You are required to find data that weakens the conclusion that by using the system the hospital be financially beneficial. The correct answer could be one that exposes the argument’s assumption.

This answer choice neither weakens nor supports the plan to use the system. Since we are not told anything about the staff at the Amgudnow Hospital, we cannot assume that they will be willing, or unwilling, to adopt such a system. Therefore, we cannot use this statement to assess the success of such a system at Amgudnow.

A management protocol system that offers a unique method for the administration of every operational factor from rules to be obeyed by employees to the scheduling of equipment and supply purchases can be installed by any hospital that wishes to do so, free of charge. The board of directors at the Amgudnow Hospital, which is never fully occupied or excessively engaged, perceives the system as being very beneficial financially and so are planning to utilize it to its fullest. It has been proven that since the system results in a cooperative work environment with streamlined efficiency, its correct operation leads to a high level of satisfaction in workers and patients alike, reducing recovery times.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt regarding the effectiveness of the plan of the hospital’s board of directors?

Whether covered by medical insurance or paid for privately by an individual, hospital services are extremely expensive primarily because of the high cost of their trained employment, and are charged for per day of hospitalization.

Very well done!

This answer choice states that hospital services are paid per day. Since we are told in the last premise that the system results in shorter recovery times, it follows that patients will be paying lower fees. Since the Amgudnow is never full, it doesn’t need to constantly vacate beds. Therefore, the system will be too efficient, meaning that the patients will leave too soon with only small hospital bills and less financial benefit to the hospital.

–*–

Base form of verb has is have. Generally used when subjunctive verb is followed by that.

–*–

1533 is divisible by 7:

1) There are 15 “hundreds” in 1533. Multiply 15 by 2 to get 30.

2) Add the remaining two-digit number 33 to get 63.

3) 63 is divisible by 7, so 1533 is divisible by 7.

–*–

Add the digits in the odd and even places, subtract and see whether the result is divisible by 11:

The sum of digits in the odd places = 1+1+1+1 = 4

The sum of digits in the even places = 0+0+0 = 0

The difference between the two sums is 4-0 = 4, which is indivisible by 11. Therefore, 1010101 is indivisible by 11.

–*–

Advances in materials engineering enabled the bicycle industry to create aluminum alloy frames that are far more lightweight than iron.

– correct – far more lightweight than are iron frames

– wrong – far more lightweight than iron frames

Although this answer choice corrects the original Comparative mistake and is grammatically correct, it is stylistically flawed by not having a conjugated verb in the second part of the comparative structure. It is true that stylistic mistakes are not always corrected. However, since there is an answer choice that is both grammatically and logically correct and includes a conjugated verb in the second part of the comparative structure, it is preferable to this one. Look for it!

—*—

The GRE, which was first administered in 1949, is four years older than is the GMAT.

– wrong – first administered in 1949, is four years older than

– correct – first administered in 1949, is four years older than is

—*—

As most other countries, the U.S. requires that students from abroad apply for the appropriate visa.

-As most other countries do, the U.S. requires that students from abroad apply

A comparative section beginning with as (As most other countries) should always include a conjugated verb. This answer choice correctly adds the verb do.

—*—

Preferable than solutions based on case-by-case decisions, rules that are consistently applied by an administration are guaranteed to exempt it from accusations of impartiality that are bound to arise

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original grammatical mistake, it is still grammatically incorrect. First, the phrase preferable than is non-idiomatic. The correct idiom is preferable to. Than is mainly used in comparisons and should only follow a comparative (e.g. More preferable, greater, lower, etc.).

—*—

Consistent application of rules by an administration, even if deciding on a case-by-case basis could lead to a preferred solution, guarantees exemption from accusations of impartiality as are likely to arise

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The conjunction as (as are likely to arise) should be followed by aclause, but there is no subject in the following clause. Clauses that lack a subject are usually relative clauses (e.g.that are likely to arise).

-Consistent application of rules, even when deciding on a case-by-case basis could lead to a preferred solution, guarantees that an administration will be exempt from accusations of impartiality that are bound to arise

—*—

If the cyberpunk novel Neuromancer was written 500 years ago, hardly anyone would have understood a word of it.

had been written 500 years ago, hardly anybody

In Conditionals, was is never used and should be replaced by were. In addition, the condition part is in Past Simple (if… was written), which indicates Conditional 2, and the result part is in Future Past Perfect (would have understood), indicating Conditional 3.

—*—

The police officer adamantly refused to legally declare that the ladies were missing since to grant them the status of missing persons require that they be gone for at least 24 hours.

declare the ladies missing persons since to do so requires that they be gone

 -This is a perfectly idiomatic and grammatical construction. The corrected sentence turns both the ladies andmissing persons into objects of the verb declare.  That’s why as isn’t needed.  Two direct objects that follow each other is common in verbs describing actions that cause a new state to come into being, such as “declare”, “promise”, or “wish”.

eg:The judge declared the defendant guilty. // The judge declared that the defendant was guilty.The woman wished her husband well. // The woman wished that her husband be well.

The boss promised Jane a vacation. // The boss promised to Jane that she would have a vacation.

—*—

Is it true that x is equal to the value of x rounded to the tenths?

(1) x is equal to the value of x rounded to the hundredths.

(2) x is equal to the value of x rounded to the units.

—*—

With viewer ratings being a broadcast company’s cardinal interest, using information’s distortion is commonplace and even encouraged at times

the distortion of information is commonplace and is sometimes even encouraged

—*—

Other noun phrases with a similar structure are:

  • damage to the ozone
  • improvements to their homes
  • the move to the big city

—*—

Maybe is considered too simple for the GMAT. It is OK for spoken English, but in standard, written English it is preferable to use perhaps, possibly or probably.

Example:
Incorrect: John thinks that maybe Jane will arrive home late today.

Correct: John thinks that perhaps Jane will arrive home late today.
Correct: John thinks that Jane will possibly/probably arrive home late today.       

Thus, whenever you see the word maybe in a Sentence Correction question, eliminate all answer choices that include it, and choose answer choices that use perhaps, possibly or probably instead.

Also, when you write the essays, remember not to use maybe but one of the other words: perhaps, possibly, probably.

Do not confuse the word maybe with the words may be, which are fine to use in the GMAT.

Here are the most common conclusion words:

therefore (which we have just learned)

John is sick. Therefore, he stayed at home.

so

John is sick, so he stayed at home.

as a result

John is sick. As a result, he stayed at home.

consequently

John is sick. Consequently, he stayed at home.

thus

John is sick and thus stayed at home.

hence

John is sick and hence stayed at home.

Also focus on just a few main error types – there are 8 that I kept in mind: pronouns, modifiers, verb tense, s-v agreement, parallelism/comparison, idioms, quantity errors, and redundancy. This will cover nearly all of the SC errors on the GMAT.

2. Conjunction Categories

There are five main semantic (i.e., meaning) categories of conjunctions:

A. Addition – and, also, in addition, moreover, furthermore

B. Opposition – but, however, yet, nevertheless, although, despite, in spite of, while, whereas

C. Reason – because, since, as, for

D. Conclusion – so, therefore, thus, as a result, consequently

E. Time course – before, after, while, when, since, as long as, as soon as

3. Conjunction Use in AWA

When you write the GMAT essays, use conjunctions whenever suitable to help the reader understand your flow of ideas.

Example:

Many people drink coffee. Jane drinks tea. She likes it better than coffee. She believes it is healthier.

Adding conjunctions makes this text clearer and emphasizes the logical relations between the different sentences:

Many people drink coffee. Jane, however, drinks tea because she likes it better than coffee and she believes it is healthier.

Our Stop Sign is the following:

x or (even) more than x

The word even is in parentheses because it won’t always appear.

Example:

Incorrect: John’s brother is 32 or more than 32 years old.
Correct: John’s brother is at least 32 years old.

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